Is it the latest ‘superfood’, what does it really contain and why are its supporters ‘roaring’ about it?
As we’ve already seen from previous blogs, making natural chocolate is complicated enough process as it is. The cacao beans have to picked by hand before they are fermented and then roasted, ground down and pressed. After that, the cocoa beans are mixed with sugar and fats and eventually turned into the chocolate snack bars and sweets that we know and love.
Given all this, it’s little wonder perhaps, that some chocolate manufactures have decided to shorten the process by not roasting the cacao beans. Instead, the beans are left out to dry, naturally; hence ‘raw’ chocolate.
Raw cocoa beans are cold pressed not roasted
So most raw chocolate is formed from cold pressed or stone pressed cacao beans which is then made into cacao paste, butter or cacao powder. It’s often sold in blocks like dark chocolate.
Supporters of raw chocolate say that by not roasting the beans it allows the minerals naturally present in the cacao to be preserved. So there’s a higher quantity and quality of iron, zinc, magnesium, enzymes and vitamin C in each serving.
This would make it better to eat from a nutritional standpoint. Supporters also claim that unroasted cacao contains higher levels of antioxidants – almost double – than that of roasted cacao.
Healthy & Low in sugar
Strictly speaking, raw chocolate shouldn’t contain any sugar at all. This might help with controlling your weight, dealing with cravings or improving your metabolism. Milk is another no-no; although some raw chocolate may include raw cacao oil or butter to give creamy but dairy free taste to the raw bitter flavour of the chocolate.
Whether or not this actually improves the chocolate taste is probably a matter of a personal opinion, but raw chocolate certainly keeps more minerals, nutrition and other delicious goodness than regular chocolate.
Processing is kept under 42 C
This is where it gets technical. In order, to derive these health benefits, raw chocolate – the cacao bean – needs to be processed at a temperature of under 42-45C.
The traditional process of making chocolate is all about the fermentation of the cacao. This is the process in which any tannins or acid flavours from the raw cacao bean, direct from the cacao tree, are turned into fruity, chocolate aromas.
Fermentation can last for a number of days as the cacao is turned to allow for an even ferment and oxygen is introduced. This takes place either at the farm on the plantation or at a nearby processing plant.
During the traditional fermentation, temperatures usually reach up to 50C. Cocoa presses used to create cocoa butter involve the butter melting at around 70C.
There appears to be certain amount of scepticism in the chocolate industry that raw cacao powder really can be produced at temperature under 42C. So, there appears to be a quality control issue here for manufactures of raw chocolate to demonstrate that any supposed chocolate health benefits are really in line with the actual processes involved.
Lighter & Milder flavour and taste
There’s a practical reason for roasting chocolate as well as helping to develop and enhancing the flavour. That’s to kill any bacteria.
If you think of cacao being left out to ferment and then to dry out in the sun under banana leaves then most of us would probably want to be re-assured that any ‘raw;’ chocolate that wasn’t roasted at high temperature was properly treated to prevent any possible hygiene risks.
In reply, supporters of raw chocolate claim that dark chocolate may use cacao beans that have been left longer than raw chocolate in the sun to ferment allowing mycotoxins to develop. Mycotoxins are a form of fungus which is presented in fermented substances such as mushrooms and coffee.
Processing raw chocolate
Because the cacao beans are harvested almost immediately to make into raw chocolate, without heating to preserve the ‘natural;’ flavours, they say, that this prevents sugar cravings ad food allergies which may raise from the presence of mycotoxins in chocolate.
If raw means unprocessed, than any cacao which has been fermented and mixed with other ingredients may not really be raw? So, it’s back to defining the health benefit of what constitutes raw chocolate.
This also means being able to properly certify and provide accreditation for the actual process involved. It’s a tough task but is it worth either the health or the taste benefits – however raw the finished chocolate actually is?